Asian Mycological Association
Asian Mycological Committee NEWSLETTER --2010-2011 2016-03-29 11:09:36

Editor in Chief: Kevin D Hyde, Jiang Na, others

Chairmanand office bearers

Chairman

Xingzhong Liu

State Key Laboratory of Mycology

Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

No. 3 1st Beichen West Rd., Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P.R.China

liuxz@im.ac.cn

Vice-Chairman

Tae Soo Lee

Division of Life Sciences

University of Incheon

Incheon 406-840, Korea  

younslee@kangwon.ac.kr

Vice-Chairman

Vikineswary Sabaratnam

Institute of Biological Sciences

Faculty of Science

University of Malaya

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  

viki@um.edu.my

General Secretary

Lei Cai  

State Key Laboratory of Mycology

Institute of Microbiology,Chinese Academy of Sciences

No. 3 1st Beichen West Rd.,Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P. R.China

mrcailei@gmail.com

Committeemembers

l  Australasian    

Peter Buchanan  

Private Bag 92170

Auckland Mail Centre

Auckland 1142

New Zealand

BuchananP@landcareresearch.co.nz

l  Bangladesh  

Amin Uddin Mridha    

Plant Production Department

King Saud University

P.O.Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom ofSaudi Arabia

mridha@abnetbd.com

l  Cambodia    

Hean Vanhan      

Deputy Director General

General Directorate of Agriculture (GDA)/ MAFF, Cambodia

No.54B/49F, Street 395-656, ToeukLaak 3, Tuol Kok, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

hean_vanhan@yahoo.com

l  China    

Xingzhong Liu

State Key Laboratory of Mycology

Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

No. 3 1st Beichen West Rd., Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P.R.China

liuxz@im.ac.cn

l  China    

Lei Cai  

State Key Laboratory of Mycology

Institute of Microbiology,Chinese Academy of Sciences

No. 3 1st Beichen West Rd.,Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P. R.China

mrcailei@gmail.com

l  HongKong  

Lilian LP Vrijmoed

College of Science andEngineering

Department of Biology andChemistry

City University Hong Kong

Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, HongKong SAR      

bhlilian@city.edu.hk

l  India      

Chandralata Raghukumar

313, Vainguinim Valley

Dona Paula, Goa, 403 004, India

lata_raghukumar@rediffmail.com

l  Indonesia

Kartini Kramadibrata

Herbarium Bogoriense

Bidang Botani, Pusat Penelitian Biologi-LIPI

Cibinong Science Center (CSC)-LIPI

Jl. Raya Jakarta-Bogor

INDONESIAkkramadibrata@yahoo.co.uk

l  Iran

Rasoul Zare

Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran

simplicillium@yahoo.com

l  Israel    

Oded Yarden

The Buck Family Chair Professorof Plant Pathology

Head, Dept. of Plant Pathologyand Microbiology

The Robert H. Smith Faculty ofAgriculture, Food and Environment

The Hebrew University ofJerusalemRehovot 76100

Israel    

oded.yarden@huji.ac.il

l  Japan    

Toru Okuda

Mycology & Metabolic Diversity Research Center

Tamagawa University Research Institute

6-1-1 Tamagawa-Gakuen, Machida

Tokyo 194-8610, Japan    

torula@lab.tamagawa.ac.jp

l  Korea    

Tae Soo Lee

Division of Life Sciences

University of Incheon

Incheon 406-840, Korea  

younslee@kangwon.ac.kr

l  Kuwait  

Azza A.AlMusallam

Faculty of Science

PO Box 5969

Safat 13060

Kuwait

azza.almusallam@ku.edu.kw

l  Laos

Phengsintham Pheng

Department of Biology

National University of Laos

P.O. Box T32, Xaysetha, Vientiane, Laos

pheng_phengsintham@hotmail.com

l  Malaysia      

Vikineswary Sabaratnam

Institute of Biological Sciences

Faculty of Science

University of Malaya

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  

viki@um.edu.my

l  Mongolia    

Tsetseg Baljinova

Laboratory of Microbiology

Institute of Biology

Mongolian Academy of Sciences

Ulaanbaatar-51

Mongolia    

tsetseg110@yahoo.com

l  Myanmar    

Thida W. Ko Ko  

Mushroom Research Centre

Chiang Mai

Thailand

thidawinkoko@gmail.com

l  Nepal

Mahesh K. Adhikari

Adhikari Niwas

KUKL 4/536

Dakshin Tol

BhaniMandal,

Lalitpur, Nepal

mkg_adh@wlink.com.np

l  Philippines  

Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

Department of Biological Sciences

College of Science

University of Santo Tomas

España 1015 Manila

Philippines  

thomasdelacruz@yahoo.com

l  Russia

Larissa Vasilyeva

Institute of Biology & SoilScience

Far East Branch of the RussianAcademy of Sciences

Vladivostok 690022

Russia  

vasilyeva@biosoil.ru

l  Saudi Arabia

A.H. Bahkali      

Botany and Microbiology Department

College of Science, King Saud University

Riyadh

Saudi Arabia

abahkali@ksu.edu.sa

l  Singapore  

Teck Koon Tan

Department of Biological Science

National University of Singapore

14 Science Drive 4

Singapore 117543      

dbstantk@nus.edu.sg

l  Sri Lanka

Nimal Adikaram

Department of Botany

Faculty of Science

University of Peradeniya

Peradeniya (20400)

Sri Lanka      

nkba@pdn.ac.lk

l  Taiwan  

Sung-Yuan Hsieh

Department of Botany

National Museum of Natural Science

Taichung, Taiwan 404      

sungyuan@gmail.com

l  Thailand

Kasem Soytong

Biocontrol Research Unit andMycology Section

Department of Plant PestManagement

Faculty of AgriculturalTechnology

King Mongkut’s Institute ofTechnology Ladkrabang (KMITL)

Bangkok 10520

Thailand

kskasem@yahoo.com

l  Vietnam

Min Lam Duong

Department of Microbiology andBiotechnology, Faculty of Biology

Hanoi National University ofEducation

136 Xuanthuy, Caugiay

Hanoi, Vietnam

duong.minhlam@gmail.com

l  Thailand

Kevin D. Hyde

PO Box 58

Bandoo Post Office

Muang, Chiang Rai 57100

Thailand

kdhyde3@gmail.com

l  Japan

Akira Suziki

Faculty of Education/Graduate School of Horticulture

Chiba University

Japan

asmush@faculty.chiba-u.jp

Asian Mycological Congress 2011

12th International Marine and Freshwater Mycology Symposium

7-11 August 2011

TheUniversity of Incheon Convention Centre, Incheon, Korea, was the venue for the2011 AMC and IMFMS meetings, an impressive new campus of the University. 269participants attended from 22 countries, with host country fielding the highestnumber (163). The AMC programme included 72 oral presentations in 16 symposia,263 posters and five plenary lectures by Robert Samson (Fungi and food: Friendsor enemies), Gareth Jones (Marine fungal diversity: How many species arethere?), Toru Okuda (Mycology for mycology?), Ching-Hua Su (Fluconaole induceddrastic genetic change in Candidaalbicans), and Hyun-Sook Lee (Mycoviruses and mushrooms diseases and theirdetection systems).

Theconference was opened by Prof. Tae-Soo Lee, Chair of the organizing committeewho welcomed all the participants. Besides the scientific presentation we werealso treated to a culture show and some wonderful photographs of mushrooms.

TwoAMC awards were made at the meeting: Distinguished Mycologists 2011 award toProfessor Kevin Hyde, Thailand and Young Mycologists award to Dr Lei Cai. Therewere a number of distinguished nominations considered by the search committeeand set a very high standard for these new awards by AMC.

IMFMS12 attracted fewer participants than the very successful meeting in Taiwan in2009. The programme was reduced to four sessions with 19 oral presentations and20 posters. This prompted Gareth at the closing session to query whether themeeting had outlived its usefulness with the declining numbers of mycologistsworking on aquatic fungi. However many disagreed with this and the meeting inChina will decide the future of the IMFMS. Prof. Yang Soo Lee (Korea) offeredto set up a website to promote IMFMS in the hope of attracting a wider audiencefor future meetings. We wish this venture every success.

Iam grateful to the following for supplying summaries and photographs: NatarajanVelmurugan, Satinee Suetrong, Yang Soo Lee, Lei Cai and Hyeon-Su Ro.  

GarethJones

Instituteof Ocean and Earth Sciences

UniversityMalaysia

Asian Mycological Awards

DistinguishedAsian Mycologist Award

Dr Kevin D. Hyde was giventhe award of Distinguished Asian Mycologist in August2011 at the Asian Mycological Congress for his services in promoting AsianMycology. Dr Hyde has been Headand Associate Professor of the Institute ofExcellence in Fungal Research, School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University,Chiang Rai since January 2008 and is also the Managing Director of the MushroomResearch Foundation, Chiang Mai, Thailand.


Dr Hyde looking for freshwater fungi in southernFrance (photographed by Jacques Fornier)

Dr Hyde was the Coordinator ofEASIANET from 2004 until 2007. This was an elected position in the bodydesignated by CBD with the role to remove taxonomic impediments from the EastAsia region. Dr Hyde was also Chairman of the Mycological Association of HongKong between 2002-2007 which was inaugurated in 1997. As Chairman of the AsianMycological Committee from 2007-2011 he promoted the study of mycologythroughout the Asian region. He was editor-in-chief of Fungal Diversity for 11years, a journal that Dr Hyde introduced, and was also EIC of the FungalDiversity Research Series, the International Journal of AgriculturalMicrobiology, and Mycology and is associate editor of eight other journals. DrHyde has published more than 800 refereed papers and of these 560 are in SCIjournals. He has also published 17 books. Dr Hyde’s passion though is intraining students and he supervised some 20 postdoctoral fellows, more than 60PhD students, and 15 MPhil students up to now. Currently he is supervising/co-supervising more than 25 postgraduate students at Mae Fah Luang University,Thailand and in China.


Dr Hyde teaching his students in the MushroomResearch Centre classroom. Students from left to right: Marivic Cabenella,Nilam Wulanderi, Dr Iman Hidiyat, Dr Subbu and Mr Sophia

Dr Hyde’s academic career is a very unlikely successstory as on three occasions it appeared he would opt for other career paths.When he was 15 and about to start his last year at high school his parentsmoved from Cheltenham to Poole,Dorset, UK. This had the unfortunate result that he had to restart hisO-level studies because of a change in exam body syllabus and take his examswithin 10 months. With four sultry O-level grades he was offered a job in achrome plating factory as a chemical apprentice and his father, John Hyde,recommended that he take this up. However, after discussions with the teachersat Poole Grammar School they persuaded his fatherto allow Kevin to pursue his A-levels which John fortunately accepted.Following his A-levels Dr Hyde carried out his B.Sc. in Zoology at Cardiff University at the Universityof Wales between 1976 and 1979, followed by a one year M.Sc. at Portsmouth University. At this stage he decided to leaveacademia and carried out a one year Post graduate diploma in teaching and in August 1980 took up his first job as a high schoolteacher at Hurst School near Basingstoke. Hisstrong desire to travel soon saw him travel to Seychelles,landing a teaching position where he spent 24 months teaching in a high school.He had maintained constant contact with Prof. Gareth Jones his M.Sc. programsupervisor and in September 1984 he returned toPortsmouth University in UK and commenced his Ph.D. in Marine Mycology underthe guidance of Professor Jones at University of Portsmouth.Never happy to be back in the UK, Dr Hyde finished his Ph.D. in two and a halfyears and moved to Brunei and again opted out ofacademia to take up yet another high school teaching position in this oil-richstate. In Brunei, he was able to continue his marine mycology research with thehelp of two microscopes borrowed from Prof Jones (Portsmouth University) and inabout three years had published 50 international research articles. By 1989, DrHyde tired of high school teaching, migrated to Australiawhere he was jobless for a while. After four months of seeking research oruniversity positions in vain, disillusionment set in and he almost acceptedthat a career in research would never be possible for him. To make mattersworse he walked through a glass door seriously injuring a knee cap which had tobe removed, cleaned and replaced. Fortunately, Ian Moorheadwho was the director of Departmentof Primary Industries,Queensland at this time, saw Dr Hyde’smycological potential and invited Dr Hyde for an interview as a NAQS scientist.Dr Hyde attended the interview on crutches but was offered the position. Thesubsequent new job surveying plant pathogens throughout north Queensland and Papua New Guinea set the tone for future research ontropical fungi. Although the NAQS job was pretty routine involving looking for20 or so target organisms, he spent as much time as possible looking at otherfungi of interest and by 2002 had more than 100 SCI publications, mostlyunrelated to his work. Dr Hyde desperately wanted to get into a University sohe could concentrate on research and teach research students. His dream cametrue in November 2002 at the age of 37, when hewas offered a tenured lectureship at the Department of Botany in the University of Hong Kong where he remained for 15 years before moving to Thailand. He was the director of the Centre for Research in Fungal Diversity,Department of Ecology & Biodiversity, The University of Hong Kong from 1998to 2007. Throughout thistime he was very much inspired by his Ph.D. supervisor, Professor Jones. Duringthis time he gained a Doctor of Science degree in Biodiversity and Biology ofTropical Microfungi at the University of Wales. In 2008 Dr Hyde retired fromhis position in Hong Kong, as he wanted a life where he could live in a housewith a garden and have a car and pets, much of which was not possible in thecramped Hong Kong lifestyle. It had also become seriously hard to get researchfunding in Hong Kong. His moved to Mae Fah Luang University, Thailand waspurely by chance and mostly due to meeting the then Dean of Science, the lateProf Keith Syers. This move was a shear stroke of luck and since joining MFLUDr Hyde has managed to develop a large hard working active research group.


April 2007, party at Dr Hyde’s small Hong Kongapartment, from left to right: Dr Rui lin Zhao, Dr Rampai Kodsueb, Dr (Joy)Ratchadawan Cheewangkoon, Dr Damodar Shenoy, Dr Zhang Ying, Dr HydeAs stated early Dr Hyde’s passion is to train youngmycologists. His counsel to young researchers is always to persevere in theirresearch, publish as often as they can and let the world see what research theyare capable of, and be patient when trying to get a research position.Eventually because of their expertise and perseverance, they will be offeredthe jobs matching their visions. However he states “remember jobs formycologists are few and far between, but so is a molecular mycologist who alsounderstands morphology and thus a position will eventually materialise”. Healways guides his students as follows,I really want to see you developingyourselves. “Be a general mycologist and do not specialize on one genus”. Hehas said many times, “a Ph.D. trains you to run your own research group - advancescience and train yourself to be a scientist. If you cannot getthings done and push yourself what hope do you have when you leave the nest? Sotry to learn to push yourselves and achieve. You are working for yourselves not me and whatever you achieve will go towards your future - not mine. You are not doing a PhD just to get the title“Dr” in front of your name. If you are, then you should not continue, but quitnow”.Dr Hyde’sstudents are represented by many nationalities from Asia, among them are Thais,Sri Lankans, Chinese, Laos, Myamarese, Vietnamese, Pilipino, Nepali andIndians. He also has one Kenyan MS student. Dr Hyde has provided a great dealof opportunities to young qualified students who were unable to findopportunities in their interest areas, and provide scholarships through theMushroom Research Foundation for PhD’s in mycology.  This article is not enough to express and explain the good work Dr Hyde has done topromote mycology in the Asian region as well as worldwide. He strives to mouldeach of his students into renowned mycologists in their own right. In therecent round of IMA Young Mycologists awards,two out of the five young awardees (Australasia and Asia) were Dr Hyde’sprevious students.  In Dr Hyde’s laboratory, we are budding mycologists, who have been taught, trainedand mentored by Dr Hyde and would like to wish Dr Hyde all the very best andgood luck as his endeavors to train and mould mycologists to salvage the worldof mycology which is in dire need of many more mycologists.

SamanthaChandranath Karunarathna

PhD Candidate

MaeFah Luang University,

ChiangRai, Thailand


Dr. Lei Cai awarded theYoung Mycologist Award in Asia


Dr. Lei Cai is one of the leading youngmycologists in China. He is a Professor at the Institute of Microbiology,Chinese Academy of Sciences and has been working on the systematic andbiodiversity of plant pathogenic, aquatic, coprophilous and thermophilic fungifor many years. For his outstanding achievements in his carrier life hereceived the Asian Mycological Association (AMA) Young Mycologist Award duringthe Asian mycological congress held in South Korea August 2011. This is thefirst time that AMA awarded a young mycologist in the region.

Dr. Lei Cai was graduated from Tsinghua University, Beijing,China in 1998 and joined to the Yunnan University, China as a researchassistant. As the turning step in to the field of mycology he has completed hisMSC in Mycology during 2000- 2002 in Yunnan University, China. He started hisPhD in 2002 under the supervision of Prof. Kevin D. Hyde in the University ofHong Kong. After the successful completion of his PhD, Dr. Cai joined R&Dcentre, Novozymes, Beijing as  a researchscientist (2006-2009), and senior research scientist (2009-2010). For hisinvaluable achievement in the mycological research, Dr. Cai was awarded theprestigious “Hundred-Talent Program” of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in2010.  

Dr Lei Cai has been a dedicated young mycologist in Asia andworldwide during the past decade. He has attained a notable number ofpublications including one monograph, 2 book chapters, 54 publications oninternational journals and these publications attained 378 citations (H’ Index=12). He accomplished 13 research projects, based on which he described 5 newgenera, 48 new species and 7 new combinations. This exceptional contribution tothe field of mycology is very appreciable considering the time in his careerlife as an active young scientist in the field.

Dr. Lei Cai is not only a talented researcher but also anactive teacher. He conducts the courses on systematic mycology andphytopathology for the postgraduate students in CAS, and Chinese Academy ofAgricultural Science (CAAS). He also gave lectures in various internationalworkshops, seminars and conferences. Dr. Cai is currently supervising 5 MSCstudents, 3 PhD students and 2 post doctoral associates.  He is popular among students as a talentedand kind hearted teacher. As the executive associate editor, Dr. Cai played asignificant role in establishing and managing the new international journal“Mycology”. He is also an associate editor of Fungal Diversity and reviewspapers for journals such as Biodiversity and Conservation, Journal of PlantPathology, Plant Pathology, Plant Disease, Microbial Ecology, Mycologia,Mycoscience and Nova Hedwigia.


2011 Mycologyin China


²  The Mycological Society of China

TheMycological Society of China (MSC), is an academic organization devoted to theresearch and extension of mycology in China. MSC, formerly a division ofthe Botanical Society of China (BSC) (1980-1992), became an independent societyin May 1993. Currently there are 12 professional committees, 6 working committees and nearly 3,000 Chinese andinternational members. MSC is a sustainable member of the InternationalMycological Association and Asian Mycological Association.

PROFESSIONALCOMMITTEES

1. Divisionof fungal diversity and systematic mycology

2. Divisionof plant pathogenic fungus

3. Divisionof entomogenous fungus

4. Divisionof medical mycology

5. Divisionof edible fungi

6. Divisionof pharmaceutical fungi

7. Divisionof industrial fungi

8. Divisionof myxomycetes

9. Divisionof lichenology

10.Division of mycorrhiza and endophytic fungi

11.Division of fungal chemistry

12.Division of fungal genetics and molecular biology

MSC focuses on the development offungal science in China and international community and aims to provide aplatform to meet the needs of a demanding and growing field, and to serve andengage dialogue between Chinese mycologists and the international community. Topublish journals and organize international conferences, national annualmeetings, various symposia and workshops are the main tasks of the society.

Highlights of 2011

l  TheTenth China-Korea Joint Symposium was held at Shandong Agricultural University,Tai’an city on 22-25 April, 2011. Fifteen representatives from Korea and 60representatives from China attended this symposium. Fourteen speeches coveringfungal diversity, phylogeny and evolution, edible and medicinal fungi and otheraspects were reported on the meeting.

l  Thetenth mycological symposium of cross-strait sponsored by Mycological Society ofChina and Mycological Society of Taiwan, was held at Wuhan AgricultureUniversity on 15-18 July, 2011. Sixteen members of Mycological Society of Taiwanattended this symposium. Fifty representatives presented their latest researchoutcomes. To enhance the exchange and co-operation between mycologists fromCross-Taiwan Straits and facilitate the development in mycology, the jointsymposium has been run every two years since 1993 in mainland or Taiwanrespectively.

l  The2011 MSC annual meeting was held in Guangzhou on 15-17 August. More than 400members of MSC participated this annual meeting. There are 150 presentations in11 sections. These reports exhibited the latest research results on thefollowed aspects: fungal diversity and systematics, plant pathology, medicalmycology, edible mushroom, pharmaceutical fungi, industrial fungi, myxomycete,mycorrhiza and endophytic fungi, fungal chemistry, fungal genetics andmolecular biology. Postgraduate student awards were given to six studentpresentations.

l  China’sFungal Genome Initiative (CFGI) proposed by the MSC are now investing greatefforts for fungal genomics. More than 60 species of plant, insect and nematodepathogens as well as the mushrooms and mycorrhizal fungi have been or are beingsequenced. To incorporate the joint efforts, the first CFGI Symposium wassuccessfully held in Shanghai on September 20-22, 2009. The studies on fungalgenomics have been extensively advanced for the past two years. To continuepromoting fungal genomics studies in China, the second CFGI symposium wasorganized by MSC and Yunnan University on October 23-25, 2011. Following theinvited talks, a workshop was held for sharing the techniques/methods forgenomic data analysis.

l  “MiniSymposium on Advances in Fungal Genomics and Evolution - In Celebration of theFounding of the State Key Laboratory of Mycology” kicked off at the Instituteof Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, on 22 October. Sixprestigious international mycologists were invited to give presentations atthis mini-symposium. The speakers shared their state-of-art research and ideasin fungal genomics and evolution with over 140 Chinese participants of thismini-symposium.

Publications  

l  An official journal ofMycological Society of China entitled “Mycology, an international journal on fungalbiology” had been launched in January 2010 and published by Taylor& Francis. Mycology publishes papers on all aspects of mycology includinglichens, with preference in systematics, ecology and biodiversity,genomics and proteomics, and molecular phylogeny and evolution. Otherappreciate subjects for the journal include bioinformatics, physiology andbiochemistry, pathology, morphology development, cell biology, genetics,molecular biology, fungal enzymology, fungal metabolites and new techniques.

l Mycosystemais a merger of former Acta Mycologica Sinica (1982-1997) and Mycosystema(1987-1997) sponsored by the Mycological Society of China and the Institute ofMicrobiology, Chinese Academy of Science and published bimonthly. The journalincludes original papers and short communications based on research results, aswell as literature and book reviews dealing with various aspects of mycology. Mycosystemapublishes papers mainly in the fields of taxonomy, biodiversity, molecularsystematics of fungi. The papers related to ecology, phytopathology,physiology, genetics, medical mycology, industrial mycology and veterinarymycology are also encouraged and acceptable.

l Journal of Fungal Researchis a quarterly journal sponsored by MSC and Jilin Agricultural University andwas launched in December 2003. The journal publishes the papers concerning thescientific researches on the organisms studied by mycologists, which areaccepted as fungi in the Kingdom (Mycota), pseudofungi and slime molds alongwith bacteria (Monera), plants (Plantae), animals (Animalia) and protists(Protista). The journal of FungalResearch is a window for academic exchange of scientific research,technology and education of pan-fungi.


Indian Mycology (2010-2011)

Fungalresearch is being carried out in several universities and research institutionsin India, each group having established its own special niche.

Damodar Shenoy at the Institute of MicrobialTechnology, Chandigarh, is interested in phylogeny and molecular diversity ofplant pathogenic fungi and DNA barcoding of fungi. G.S. Prasad at the sameinstitute works on the phylogeny and molecular diversity of yeasts. He hasdescribed several new species of yeasts from India.

Shenoy BD, Jeewon R, Wang HK,Amandeep K, Ho WH, Bhat DJ, Crous PW, Hyde KD. 2010. Sequence data revealsphylogenetic affinities of fungal anamorphs Bahusutrabeeja,Diplococcium, Natarajania, Paliphora, Polyschema, Rattania and Spadicoides.Fungal Diversity 44: 161–169.

Daniel HM,Prasad GS. 2010. The role of culture collections asan interface between providers and users: the example of yeasts. Res Microbiol. 161(6):488-96.

Extensiveresearch on endophytic fungi of forest trees, algae and mangroves is beingcarried out by T.S. Suryanarayana and his team at the Vivekananda Institute ofTropical Mycology. He has recently described heat-resistant, ‘agni’ fungi fromthe forests of Western Ghats, whose spores survive exposure to 100-115oC.D.J. Bhat and his students have carried out enormous work on diversity of fungiin various habitats in Goa and have described several new species and reportednew records of fungi from India.

Suryanarayanan TS, Govinda Rajulu MB,Thirumalai E, Reddy MS and Money NP. 2011. Agni’s fungi: heat-resistant sporesfrom the Western Ghats, southern India. FungalBiology Reviews 115: 833-838.

Thirunavukkarasu N, Suryanarayanan TS,Murali TS. Ravishankar JP, Gummadi SN. 2011. L-asparaginase from marine derivedfungal endophytes of seaweeds. Mycosphere2:147–155.

Pratibha J, Bhat DJ andRaghukumar S. 2011. Four anamorphic fungi from forests of Western Ghats, India,with two new species. 117: 269–278.

T. Satyanarayana and his team in Delhi University SouthCampus concentrate on fungal enzymes, especially phytase and its applications.M.S. Reddy at the Thapar Research Institute, Patiala works on moleculardiversity of AM fungi and reclamation of polluted lands using plants inoculatedwith these fungi. Alok Adholeya at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research(TERI) has a large group devoted to research on the application of AM fungi asbiofertilizers, to increase the productivity of crop plants and towardsreclamation of land degraded by several industrial pollutants. He has developeda protocol for mass production of AM fungi and commercialized the technology.

Kaur,P., Singh, B., Böer, E., Straube, N., Piontek, M., Satyanarayana, T. andKunze, G. 2010. Pphy – a cell-bound phytase from the yeast Pichia anomala: molecularcloning of the gene PPHY and characterization of therecombinant enzyme. J. Biotechnol. 149: 8–15.

Singh, B. and Satyanarayana, T. 2011.Microbial phytases in phosphorus aquisition and plant growth promotion. Physiol. Mol.Biol. Plants 17: 93-103.

K.R. Sridhar and his research group at the MangaloreUniversity concentrate on diversity of fresh water and marine fungi and theirecology. J. Muthumary and her team have screened several endophytic fungi forproduction of taxol and anticancer activity. Production of nanoparticles ofvarious metals using metal-tolerant fungi or their enzymes is carried out byseveral research groups. Absar Ahmed at the National Chemical Laboratory, Punehas several publications and patents on production of nanoparticles of gold andsilver by fungi.

Sridhar KR, Karamchand KS and Sumathi P. 2010. Fungal colonization and breakdown of sedge (Cyperus malaccensis Lam.) in a southwest mangrove, India. Botanica Marina 53, 525-533.   

Baerlocher F, Charette N, Letourneau A, Nikolcheva LG andSridhar KR. 2010. Sequencing DNA extracted from single conidia of aquatichyphomycetes.Fungal Ecology 3,115-121.

Visalakchi S and MuthumaryJ. 2010. Taxol (Anticancer Drug) producing endophytic fungi: An overview. International Journal of Pharma and BioSciences.1 (3): 1-9.

Research on fungal technology is done in private firmsalso. Research on dermatophytic and keratinophilic fungi is being carried outby S.K. Deshmukh and his group at the Nicholas Piramal Research Centre, Mumbai.Raghukumar’s MykoTech Pvt Ltd., Goa, specializes on biotechnologicalapplication of fungi, their enzymes and metabolites.

Deshmukh SK and Verekar SA2011.Incidence of keratinophilic fungi from the soils of Vedanthangal water birdsanctuary (India). Mycoses. 54: 487-490.

Deshmukh SK, Verekar SA. 2011. Prevalence of keratinophilic fungi in‘Usar’ soils of Uttar Pradesh, India. Microbiology Research. 3:e15doi:10.4081/mr.2011.e15

Pratibha Jalmi, Pranali Bodke,Solimabi Wahidullah and Seshagiri Raghukumar. 2011. The fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex as a sourceof abundant, extracellular melanin for biotechnological applications. Publishedonline in World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Researchon ecology, diversity and phylogeny of deep-sea fungi and fungi fromoxygen-depleted coastal and oceanic zones of the Arabian Sea is being carriedout at the National Institute of Oceanography. Culture-dependent as well asculture-independent approaches were used to describe abundance, distributionand diversity of fungi from these extreme environments. Besides, bioremediationof industrial pollutants by marine fungi is also pursued by this group. Thesestudies have resulted in filing several national and international patents.

Jebraj C, Raghukumar C,Behnke A, Stoeck T. 2010. Fungal diversity in oxygen-depleted regions of theArabian Sea revealed by targeted environmental sequencing combined withcultivation. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 71 (3)399-412.

Singh P, Raghukumar C, VermaP, Shouche Y. 2010. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi from the deep-seasediments of the Central Indian Basin and their growth characteristics. Fungal Diversity 40: 89-102.

Verma AK, Raghukumar C, Naik CG.2011. A novel hybrid technology for remediation ofmolasses-based raw effluents. BioresourceTechnology 102: 2411-2418.

Ravindran C  and Naveenan T. 2011. Adaptation of marinederived fungus Chaetomiumglobosum (NIOCC 36) to alkaline stressusing antioxdant properties. Process Biochemistry 46: 847-857

Detailedstudies on genetics of Neurospora crassais being done by Kasbekar and his team of researchers at the Centre forCellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad. Physiology, molecular studies andbiochemistry of yeast is pursued in the department of biochemistry, IndianInstitute of Science, Bangalore.

Keshav Prasad et al. 2010.Comparative proteomic analysis of Candidaalbicans and C.globrata. ClinicalProteomics 6: 167-173.

Kasbekar D. et al. 2011.Carrefour Mme. Gras: A wild-isolated Neurosporacrassa strain that suppresses meiotic silencing by unpaied DNA and uncoversa novel ascospore stability defect. Fungal Genet.Biol. (in press)Doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2011.01.012

Severalbooks either authored or edited by these mycologists are listed below.

Books

Bhat DJ. 2010. Fascinating Microfungi (Hyphomycetes) of Western Ghats, India.Broadway Publishers, Panaji, Goa. 249 pp

MisraJK,Tiwari JP, Deshmukh SK.(Eds) 2011. Systematics and Evolution ofFungi,Science Publishers, Inc Enfield USA.

Sridhar KR. (Ed) 2011. Aquatic Plants and Plant Diseases:Types, Characteristics and Management. Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York,

Patents granted

A process for production of low temperature active alkalineprotease from a deep-sea fungus. Chandralata Raghukumar, Samir Damare, UshaDevi Muraleedharan.  
2010. Patent No.4504311  JAPAN.

A process for decolorization of colored effluents uing amarine fungus, its enzymes and extracellular polymeric substance. ChandralataRaghukumar, Donna Trella D’souza Ticlo 2010. Patent No.: GB2434364. UNITEDKINGDOM

Several other groups are engaged inmycological research whose work I could not accommodate here due to spaceconstraint. I will write about it in the next issue of the Asian mycologicalnewsletter.

Awards

Samir Damare from the National Institute of Oceanographyreceived CSIR Young

Scientist award in 2010 under the Earth, Atmosphere, Oceanand Planetary Sciences. The award was for his studies on deep-sea fungi whichhe carried out for his PhD degree. The award carries cash prize, a citation andresearch grant for a period of 5 years.

Meetings

The annual national seminar of the Mycological Society ofIndia was held in Chennai at the Centre for Advanced Study in Botany inFebruary 2011. The seminar was attended by about 150 delegates from all overIndia.

Dr.Chandralata Raghukumar,
313, Vainguinim Valley,
Dona Paula, Goa, 403 004,
India.


Some of the new fungi described from Goa.


Anaselenosporella    indica Pratibha,
   Bhat & Raghuk.

                                                 


   


Stauriella indica Pratibha, Bhat and Raghuk.


Dendryphiopsisgoanensis Praibha, Raghuk. And Bhat


Dr. Samir Damare, recipient of the CSIR Young scientist award forhis work on deep-sea fungi.


Prof. D.J. Bhat,displaying his catch during one of his fungal –hunting  trips. He retired from

the Goa University onNovember 30, 2011.


Dr. Lata Raghukumar completed her tenure as an emeritus scientist atthe National Institute of Oceanography on July 31, 2011.

Mycology in Iran: Ahistorical review

Djafar Ershad and Rasoul Zare

ResearchInstitute of Plant Protection


Iranian Research Institute of PlantProtection

Study of fungi in Iran was initiated by foreignmycologists. Most of these mycologists have not visited Iran but they receivedfungal material from botanists who came to Iran for plant collections. Thesebotanists also collected fungi separately or their plant material was examinedby mycologists for epiphytic/parasitic fungi. As the result the list of fungiseparately or together with the list of plants was published in Europeanliterature.

In order to summarize the history of mycology in Iranfive periods are described here:

1. First period: until 1860

In this early period of time there is no sign ofIranian fungi in the literature and in case there was anything published, itwas never noticed by later mycologists.

2. Second period: from 1860 to 1941

In fact study on Iranian fungi was started in thisperiod. In this period all publications on Iranian fungi belong to foreignresearchers. These in chronological order are listed here.

1.    The firstpublication on Iranian fungi is published by two European botanists, E.Boissier and F. Buhse, where 33 fungal species, mostly cap fungi, are named.The fungi in this publication (Boissier & Buhse 1860) were collected by F.Buhse.

2.    Rabenhorst(1871) authored the second publication based on fungi collected by C. Haussknechtduring two excursions in Iran.

3.    M.C. Cooke in apublication (Cooke 1880) together with the fungi of other parts of the worldnamed eight Iranian species collected from Kurdistan and Loristan provinces.

4.    Anothercontributor to Iranian mycology was Wettstein (1885) who studied Iranian fungicollected by J.F. Polak and Th. Pitcher.

5.    Masse (1899)published a list of various fungi containing two Iranian species.

6.    Study ofIranian fungi was continued more seriously when J. Bornmüller, famous botanist,started his excursions in Asian countries. This scientist collected fungitogether with plants. The material collected by Bornmüller were given to famousmycologists such as P. Magnus and H. Sydow. Bornmüller himself reported part ofthe fungi he collected together with plants in two publications (Bornmüller1908, 1911). Another part of the fungi were reported by Sydow & Sydow(1908a, 1908b). The rest and the majority of the fungi were identified by P.Magnus and published in six papers (Magnus 1896, 1899, 1899, 1903, 1912).

7.    Worth tomention that Chatin (1897) reported two species of Iranian truffles.

8.    Anothermycologist who published three Iranian fungal species based on materialcollected by O. Paulsen from central Asia and Iran was Rostrup (1908).

9.    R. G. Fragosuis another mycologist who, based on material collected by F.M. de la Escalerafrom Khuzestan and upstream of Karun river, published two papers.

10.  Iran is mentioned in the title of a publication authored by R.Picbauer (1932), but no locality of Iran is mentioned in the paper. Thematerials this scientist studied, were collected by F. Nabelek who traveled toIran and Turkey for plant collection.

11.  One of the greatest foreign mycologists who contributed most toIranian mycology was the famous Austrian mycologist F. Petrak. This mycologistpublished his first paper in 1939. The materials he studied were collected byK.H. Rechinger. F. Petrak started his study on Iranian fungi in this period,however, published his major papers on Iranian fungi in the third period. He evenpublished a paper in the fourth period.

3. Third period: from 1941 to 1963

This period is different from others in that Iranianmycologists started studying fungi of Iran. Researchers who contributed most toIranian mycology are listed here in chronological order.

1.    E. Esfandiariis the first Iranian mycologist who published the result of his studies incollaboration with F. Petrak (Petrak & Esfandiari 1941). Esfandiari had aclose collaboration with Petrak during the course of his studies and evenpublished another paper with Petrak in 1950 in Sydowia. Esfandiari has alsoworked with A. Pilát, Czechoslovakian mycologist, on the identification of capfungi of Iran. Esfandiari has published another 10 papers on fungi or plantpathogenic fungi of Iran.

2.    F. Petrak hascontributed most to the Iranian mycology in this period. He studied on thefungi that were collected by E. Esfandiari and/or G. Scharif and were sent toVienna. Petrak published another 18 papers in this period.

3.    J.A. von Arx ina paper published in 1949 on the genus Mycosphaerella mentions the namesof a few Iranian specimens that were already reported by earlier mycologists.

4.    E. Khabiri isanother Iranian mycologist who published his studies in a French journal in1952, 1956 and 1958. Besides, he published a book on mycology for Iranianstudents.

5.    R.L. Steyaert,Belgian mycologist, was in Iran in 1952 and 1953 who worked on plant diseaseswith Iranian scientists. During his stay in Iran he published a book in Frenchon Diseases of Forest Trees that was translated into Persian by A. Manuchehriand G. Scharif.

6.    D.M. Hendersonin five papers published on Asian rust fungi in 1957, 1959, 1961, 1966 and 1969reported a few rust fungi of Iran too (Henderson 1969).

7.    Another Iranianmycologist who in this period considerably contributed to Iranian mycology wasG. Scharif. He published his first paper on grape anthracnose in 1959. Thetitle of his thesis was: Etude morphologique et biologique de quelqueschampignons folicole de agrumes en Iran. He also published a number of otherpapers mostly on fungal plant diseases in Iran. As mentioned earlier, Scharifhad collected and preliminarily studied the fungi that were later studied andpublished by F. Petrak.

8.    R. Pakravan isanother Iranian mycologist who did his PhD thesis on biology and classificationof fungi attacking rose shrubs in Iran in 1958.

9.    G.Viennot-Bourgin, the French mycologist, was invited by the University of Tehranand some collection on the fungi of Iran that he published in 1958.

10.  I. Jørstad, Norwegian mycologist, in a few papers reported theresult of his study on the fungi of Iran in 1960. The materials were collectedfrom Iran by his compatriot botanist, P. Wendelbo.

11.  R. Heim, French mycologist, travelled to Iran in 1960 andpublished a paper on a mushroom species of Iran (Heim 1960).

12.  Among foreign mycologists we should also name of C. Golato,Italian mycologist, who himself did not work on Iranian fungi but published apaper in 1960 in which he names a few fungal species that were alreadypublished by earlier mycologists.

13.  A. Manuchehri and E. Mohammadi-Doustdar considerably contributedto Iranian mycology mostly in the field of mycology teaching.

4. Fourth period: from 1963 to 2000

This period is distinct from other periods for thefollowing reasons:

i.                Until thisperiod, no artificial media were used in order to grow/identify the fungi. Inthis period after the foundation of the Iranian Research Institute of PlantProtection in Tehran equipments and materials for culture of fungi wereprepared and developed. Therefore, it became possible to work on most fungalspecies. This type of research was initiated in Iranian universities at 1963.

ii.               In this perioddue to the growing number of Iranian mycologists and plant pathologists most ofthe work on Iranian fungi was done by Iranian mycologists.

iii.             In earlierperiods most papers on the identification of fungi of Iran were generallycovering all groups of fungi, but in this period papers on specific fungalgroups in addition to identification monographs on the fungi of Iran werepublished.

Due to therather large number of Iranian mycologists in this period we refrain fromwriting their names. But we feel it is necessary to introduce foreignresearchers who contributed to Iranian mycology in this period.

1.    E. Niemann wasa German plant pathologist who for many years worked for the Iranian ResearchInstitute of Plant Protection as a colleague of Iranian researchers. Hiscontribution to Iranian plant pathology and mycology was considerable enough toname him as one of the main founders of modern fungal plant pathology in Iran.He authored nine papers on plant diseases co-authored by his Iranian colleaguesthat were published in the Iranian journal Applied Entomology and PlantPathology during 1963 to 1967.

2.    In 1963 A.Dubuis & L. Faurel reported eight fungal species in a list of plant speciesthat were collected by R. Pasquier.

3.    In 1964 F.Petrak published another paper and reported two new fungal species from Iran.

4.    D. Boubls &A. Nazemille wrote a paper on grape diseases in Azarbaijan province (west ofIran) in 1966 and reported the fungi they isolated from grape in that region.

5.    W.J. Kaiser,American researcher, worked for many years at the College of Agriculture,Tehran University on disease of pulses and published his first paper in 1967.

6.    G.Viennot-Bourgin travelled to Iran in the same period and authored four papersalone or jointly with Iranian colleagues.

7.    Norwegianmycologist, Eckblad (1970) published his findings on Gasteromycetes ofIran, Afghanistan and Iraq based on material that were collected by P. Wendelbofrom Iran.

8.    W. Gerlach,German mycologist, worked for three months in Iran in 1968 and published threepapers on Iranian Fusarium and Cylindrocarpon species alone orjointly with Iranian colleagues (Gerlach & Ershad 1970).

9.    W. Frey &H.J. Mayeo (1971) listed papers published about plants and fungi of Iran.

10.  R.L. Steyaert was again in Iran in this period, in 1972 publisheda paper on Ganoderma and reported a few Iranian fungi too.

11.  J. Altman, American researcher, who worked in Iran (Power &Water Organization, Dezful, Khuzistan) on plant diseases, published a fewpapers on fungal diseases of plants.

12.  H. Riedl travelled to Iran in spring 1974 in order to collectplants, fungi and lichens of Iran. He jointly published a paper with hisIranian collaborator (Riedl & Ershad 1977).

13.  N. Hallenberg, Swedish mycologist, who worked on wood inhabitingfungi as the subject of his thesis, travelled to the Caspian Sea region in acouple of occasions with his Iranian collaborators and the result of his workedwas published in four papers (Hallenberg 1978).

14.   K. Vánky, smut specialist,travelled to Iran in spring 1990 and with his Iranian collaborator visitedcentral, eastern and northern parts of Iran and published two papers on Iraniansmut fungi (Vánky & Ershad 1993).

15.  H.B. Gjaerum, Norwegian rust specialist, collaborated with Iranianrust specialists and reported Iranian rust fungi in a few papers and alsopublished a joint paper with Iranian mycologists (Ershad et al. 1997).

5. Fifth period: from 2000

This period is distinct from other periods becausemolecular techniques were used in the identification of fungi of Iran. In thisperiod several Iranian mycologists were educated abroad or at Iranianuniversities who used molecular techniques in their works.

A turning point in the history of mycology in Iran isthe foundation of Iranian Mycological Society which took place on 15 September2010 at the Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, where fiveexecutive committee members were elected during the first general meeting of thesociety.

The number of Iranian mycologists was increased andnearly most papers were dedicated to specific groups of fungi. Due to the largenumber of Iranian mycologists in this period we refrain from writing theirnames. It is important here to mention the names of two outstanding mycologistswhose collaboration and support to young Iranian mycologists significantlycontributed to the advancement of mycology in Iran. These great mycologists areW. Gams (Swiss-Austrian mycologists who works in the Netherlands) and U. Braun(German mycologist).

As was mentioned here, in the first paper published onIranian fungi (Biossier & Buhse 1860) 33 species were reported. In thethird edition of the 'Fungi of Iran' Ershad (2009) listed 3229 fungalspecies/varieties together with their substrates and localities. Now after 151years of mycological study in Iran the number of fungal species/varieties ofIran reaches some 3300. These taxa belong to 871 genera that are: 20 of Protozoa,15 of Chromista, 261 of Deuteromycota, 225 of Ascomycota,315 of Basidiomycota (including 289 of Agaricomycotina, 21 of Pucciniomycotinaand 15 of Ustilaginomycotina), 4 of Blastocladiomycota, 2 of Chytridiomycota,9 of Glomeromycota and 20 of Zygomycota.

The first general meetingof the Iranian Mycological Society on 15 September 2010


References

Boissier E., Buhse F. (1860) Aufzählung der auf eineReise durch Transkaukasien und Persien gesammelten Pflanzen Fungi. NouveauxMémoires de la Société Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou, Tom 12: 244-246.

Bornmüller J (1908) Beiträge zur Flora derElbusgebirge, Nord-Persiens. Fungi Bull. Herb. Boisser. 2 ser. 8: 917-922.

Bornmüller J (1911) Collectiones Straussianae novae.Weiter Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora West-Persiens, Fungi. Beih. Bot. Centralbl.28: Abt: II. Heft 3: 529-531.

Chatin M (1897) Les terfas (truffles) de Pers. C. r.Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 125: 387-388.

Cooke MC (1880) Exotic fungi, Persia. Grevillea 9:13-14.

Eckblad F-E (1970) Gasteromycetes from Iraq. Iran andAfghanestan. Nytt. Mag. Bot. 17: 129-138.

Ershad D, Abbasi M and Gjaerum HB (1997) Report ofseveral rust taxa from Iran. Iran. J. Plant Path. 19: 40-45.

Fragoso RG (1918) Pugillusseundus mycetorum Persiae (Lecti. A Ferd Martinez de la Escalera) Boln R. Soc. Esp. Hist. nat. 18: 78-85.

Hallenberg N (1978) Wood-fungi (Corticiaceae,Coniophoraceae, Lachnocladiaceae, Telephoraceae) in N. Iran. I. Iran. J. PlantPath. 14: 38-87.

Heim R (1960) Le pleurote desombellifères en Iran. Revue Mycol. 25: 242-247.

Henderson DM (1969) Two new puccinias from south westAsia. Notes R. Bot. Gdn Edinb. 29: 389-390.

Jørstad I (1960) Iranian plants collected by PerWendelbo in 1959. II. Uredinales and some other parasitic fungi. Arb. Univ.Bergen. Nat.-Natur. Serie 11: 1-33.

Khabiri E (1952) Contribution á la mycoflore de ľIran. Premiere liste. Revue Mycol. 17: 154-157.

Magnus P (1896) J. Bornmüller. Iter Persico-turcicum1892/93. Fungi Pars I. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Pilze des Orients. Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Gesellsch. Wien 46: 426-438.

Magnus P (1899) J. Bornmüller. Iter Persico-turcicum1892/93. Fungi Pars II. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Pilze des Orients. Verh.K. K. Zool.-Bot. Gesellsch. Wien 49: 432-449.

Massee GE (1899) Fungi exotici II Persia. Kew Bull.146: 153-154.

Petrak F (1939) Fungi in K.H. Rechinger: Ergebnisseeiner botanichen Reise nach dem Iran, 1937. Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 50: 414-521.

Petrak F und Esfandiari E (1941) Beiträge zur Kenntnisder iranischen Pilzflora. Ann. Mycol. 39: 204-228.

Rabenhorst L. (1871) Übersicht der von Herrn Prof. Dr.Hassknecht im Orient gesammelten Kryptogammen. Hedwigia 10: 17-27.

Riedl H und Ershad D (1977) Mykologishe Ergebnisseeiner Sammelreise in den Iran im Frühgahr 1974. I. Sydowia 29: 155-169.

Rostrup PE (1908) Lieutenant Olufsen's secondPamir-Expedition. Plant collected in Asia Media and Persia by Ova Paulsen. V.Fungi. Bot. Tidsskr. 28: 215-218.

Sydow H und Sydow P (1908a) Einige neuve von Herrn J.Bornmüller in Persien gesammelte Pilze. Ann. Mycol. 6: 17-18.

Sydow H und Sydow P (1908b) Micromycetes orientalesacl. J. Bornmüller communicati. Ann. Mycol. 6: 526-530.

Vánky K and Ershad D (1993) Smut fungi (Ustilaginales)new to Iran. Iran J. Plant Path. 29: 1-29.

Viennot-Bourgin G (1958) Contribution á laconnaissanse des champignons parasities de ľ Iran. Ann. Epiphyt. N. S. 9:97-210.

Wettstein R (1885) Fungi in O. Stapf: Die botanischenErgebnisse der polakschen Expedition nach Persien im Jahre 1882. Denkschr.Akad. Wiss. Wien 50: 1-4.

Studies of fungal diversity in northern Thailand

Thailandis rich in tropical forests where fungi and fungi-like organisms arehyperdiverse.  Many areas however, remainunexplored, thus, many organisms still await discovery and identification.  The National Science Foundation providedfunds that support a program that provides opportunities to aspiringmycologists to carry out studies on fungi and fungi-like organisms in northernThailand.  Selected undergraduate andgraduate students from the United States and Thailand participated in theworkshop on “Fungal Diversity in Northern Thailand” in June 2011.  The students were able to interact withInternational mycologists from various universities in the United States andThailand who gave them educational experiences related to biodiversity.  Dr. Steve Stephenson, the program coordinatorfrom the University of Arkansas and Dr. Steve Miller, one of the co-directorsfrom the University of Wyoming facilitated the workshop.  They shared their expertise in microfungi andmacrofungi as well as fungi-like organisms such as myxomycetes.  Dr. Kevin D. Hyde of Mae Fah Luang Universityand Dr. Saisamorn Lumyong of Chiang Mai University were also involved in theprogram.  

Dr.    Stephenson, explaining to the students the does and don’t’s in collecting fungal    specimens.



 

Dr.    Miller, showing the students Lactarius sp. and Rhizophogun (truffles) collected from Doi Inthanon.

Variousstudy sites in northern Thailand were chosen based on the accessibility anddiversity of the area.  These include,Doi Inthanon, Doi Suthep, Mae Sae, Mushroom Research Center and Pamathikaramtemple.  The laboratory activities,lectures, processing of samples and analyzing of data were all conducted at theMushroom Research Centre.  The studentsfrom different countries (America, China, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lankaand Thailand) worked together in processing of samples and analyzing data thathelped them develop camaraderie and understand the value of team work.  


The Mushroom Research    Centre.  A bliss.  An ideal place to learn Mycology.



Personally,the fungal diversity workshop has helped me a lot to widen my knowledge inMycology.  I am very fortunate to bechosen as one of the participants of this workshop because I was able to workwith international mycologists.  I willnever forget all the knowledge and skills they have shared us during classroomdiscussions, laboratory activities and field work.  They provided us with a deeper understandingabout biodiversity and made us realize that as aspiring mycologists we shouldknow our responsibilities.  

Also,It was a great opportunity to work with foreign students from America, SriLanka, China, Myanmar,  Laos andThailand.  I learned a lot fromthem.  I hope one day, we can come upwith a big project that will contribute to fungal diversity.  More brains, more ideas.  The interaction with them, joint activitiesand field work made me realized that there is so much research to be carriedout.  Each country needs to establishinformation based on their biodiversity and make national collections oforganisms found in these areas. Our journey does not stop here.  There is a long way to go, thus, the searchfor the missing fungi continues.  

The Fungal Diversity    Research Group 2011.

Dr. Miller, showing to the students the    Lactarius sp. collected from Doi    Inthanon,



Overal,the workshop was a great success!  I wentback to my country carrying a  collectionbasket not full of mushrooms but filled with knowledge about mycology.  It has been my dream for the Philippines tofollow the path of carrying out the field of research of mycology.  

Kudosto the organizers of the MRC WORKSHOP 2011.

PAMELA P. ALVA (Pam)

Philippines

Ph.D. Student, Mae Fah Luang University

Chiang Rai Thailand


Mycology in Laos

PhengsinthamP1,2,E. Chukeatirote E 1, Hyde KD1and Braun U3

1Schoolof Science, Mae Fah Luang University,ChiangRai 57100. Thailand

2BiologyDepartment, Faculty of Sciences, National University of Laos

3Martin-Luther-Universität,Institut für Biologie, Bereich Geobotanik und Botanischer Garten, Herbarium,Neuwerk 21 D-06099 Halle/S. Germany

Abstract:Lao PDRis considered to be globally important for biodiversity conservation due to itsrelatively high forest cover and high diversity of flora and fauna. A total of12,116 species: 8,000-11,000 species of flowering plants, fauna includes 166species of reptiles and amphibians, at least 700 bird species, 90 known speciesof bats and at least 100 species of large mammals, and fungi 60 species.

      Therehave very few studies on Lao fungi. 1959-1974 was the war condition period and almost temporary stop studyin Mycology, and for each institute the teaching curriculum only mentionedabout the general mycology and focused on macrofungi such as edible andpoisonous mushroom.   From 1975 up to nowthe teaching curriculum has been developed and started studying specificsubjects on fungi. A total of 201 fungi species have recorded from Laos:Ascomycota 24 species, Basidiomycota 44 species, Deuteromycota 133 species. By integrating themorphological and molecular characters, nine new taxa were established, namely Passalora dipterocarpi, P. helicteris-viscidae, Pseudocercospora mannanorensis Bagyan., U. Braun & Jagad.var. paucifasciculata,Zasmidiumaporosae,Z.jasminicola, Z. meynae-laxiflorae, Z. micromeli,Z.suregadae, Z. pavettae, while other cercosporoids speciesrepresent new record for Laos.These data areexpected to shed light on the diversity of the fungal group in this region.

Keywords: Mycology /Biodiversity / Curriculum / South East Asia.

Introduction

     Overview ofBiodiversity in Laos

     Lao PDR is considered to be globallyimportant for biodiversity conservation due to its relatively high forest coverand high diversity of flora and fauna. Approximately 41% of Lao PDR is coveredwith forest which contains an estimated 8,000-11,000 species of floweringplants. The country’s fauna includes 166 reported species of reptiles andamphibians, at least 700 bird species, 90 known species of bats and at least100 species of large mammals(STEA, 2003), and fungi 60species (Phengsintham & Hyde, 2003a).  

Mycological studiesfrom 1959 to 1974

1959-1974it was the war condition period and temporary stop studying in Mycology, andfor teaching curriculum only mentioned about general information about fungi.

Thefungi of Laos were little studied. Vidal (1959), a French botanist, published achecklist of plant species of Laos which included 33 species of Lao fungi.Almost all names of fungi are local names, but include some scientific names.

Mycological studiesfrom 1975 to 2011

Forthis period can be divided into two phases:

(1)In 1975, combined two institutes such as Viengxay Pedagogical Institute, in HuaPhanh province and Dongdok Pedagogical Institute into one institute called“Dongdok Pedagogical Institute of Vientiane, Lao PDR”. The study in Mycology isfocused on general information about fungi. In that time, the Kingdom fungistill belong to plant.

(2)In 1996, the National University of Laos was established on the PrimeMinister’s Decree No. 50/PM, dated 09/06/1995 and began first academic year on5 November 1996, by merging 10 higher learning institution previously operatedunder different governmental department and ministries to form a full-fledgeduniversity called “National University of Laos (NUOL)”. The one of the mainobjectives is to educate Lao students to become qualified economic staff withgood behaviour, generosity, and the advanced capability leading regional andinternational standards. So far, the National University has offered thefollowing academic programs of 96 bachelor degree programs, 33 continuingbachelor programs, 37 master’s degree programs, and 3 doctoral degree programs(Saignaleut, 2011).

Morenew buildings were constructed; one of those is laboratory of BiologyDepartment, Faculty of Sciences, NUOL (Fig. 1). National University of Laos hastaken the measures in providing students with more opportunity to gain accessto university in the equitable manner through the annual entrance examinationand quota system called a quota and non-quota programs. The number of studentsgraduating from NUOL has been increasing every year as shown in the followingTable 1.

Table1: Number of student summary

Academic year

Number of registered students

Number of graduating students

Total

Female

Total

Female

1996-1997

8,137

2,270

687

237

1997-1998

9,890

2,976

1,521

384

1998-1999

11,168

3,663

1,400

381

1999-2000

11,746

4,345

1,655

428

2000-2001

13,079

5,426

2,157

579

2001-2002

16,613

5,982

2,959

882

2002-2003

18,366

6,215

2,734

651

2003-2004

20,550

7,457

3,090

905

2004-2005

22,624

8,263

3,742

1,036

2005-2006

26,673

9,415

3,981

1,299

2006-2007

28,366

10,215

4,925

1,608

2007-2008

32,332

11,069

5,595

1,813

2008-2009

36,706

12,963

5,849

2,016

2009-2010

40,731

14,537

6,639

2,492

2010-2011

37,504

16,729

6,611

2,404

Total

323,915

121,525

53,545

17,115

Source:Reports on the activities of NUOL within 15 years (1996-2011).

The fungi study was started by updating teachingcurriculum and focused study on macrofungi such as edible and poisonousmushroom, but almost data only in reports, no publications.

      Our overseas collaboration was carriedwith the “Mushroom Research Centre, Chiang Mai, Thailand”, School of Science,Mae Fah Luang University (MFU), Chiang Rai, Thailand and other institutions,and attempted to document macro- and microfungi respectively:  Phengsintham & Hyde (2003a) updated listof fungi from Laos, including 60 fungi species, and published “Twentyascomycetes on palms from Laos” (Phengsintham & Hyde, 2003b). seven (7)genera (Alternaria, Cercospora, Cladosporium, Chlamydomyces, Curvularia,Passalora, Pseudocercospora) of dematiaceous hyphomycetes were recorded inthe B.Sc. report of Vongphachanh et al. (2007), and ten (10) genera (Alternaria,Arthrinium, Cephaleros, Cladosporium, Dictyoerthirinium,Meliola, Scolecostigmina, Spirops, Pseudocercosporaand Tripospermum) of Hyphomycetes and 2 genera (Pestalopsis &Collectotrichum) of Coelomycetes on leaf and fruit of Mango (Mangiferaindica) were recorded in BSc thesis (Vanavong & Khamphonvixay, 2009).Phengsintham et al. (2009) published paper “Cercospora and allied generafrom Laos 1: notes on five new species of Zasmidium. Besidethat, Phengsintham et al. (2010a, 2010b) also published papers “Cercosporaand allied genera from Lao 2&3”. A total of 201 fungi species have recordedfrom Laos: Ascomycota 24 species, Basidiomycota 44 species, Deuteromycota about133 species (Table 2).

 By integrating the morphological and molecularcharacters, nie new taxa were established, namely Passalora dipterocarpi, P. helicteris-viscidae, Pseudocercospora mannanorensis Bagyan., U. Braun & Jagad.var. paucifasciculata,Zasmidiumaporosae,Z.jasminicola, Z. meynae-laxiflorae, Z. micromeli,Z.suregadae, Z. pavettae, while other cercosporoids speciesrepresent new record for Laos.




Table2. Fungi species described from Laos

Taxa

Local   name

Family

Host

H

LM

Ref.

ASCOMYCOTA

Appendicospora hongkongensis Yanna, K.D. Hyde & Frohl.

Apiospora-ceae

Decaying on petiole of Livistona chinensis

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Arecophila motobilis K.D. Hyde

Cainiaceae

Decaying on stem of Calamus viminalis

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Astrocystis sp.

Xylariaceae

Decaying on stem of C. flagellum

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Astrosphaeriella fisurostroma J. Frohl. & K.D.Hyde

Melanommataceae

Decaying on stem of C. flagellum

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Astrosphaeriella malayensis K.D. Hyde &J. Frohl.

Melanom-mataceae

Decaying on stem of Calamus viminalis

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Diaporthe palmarum J.E. Taylor, K.K.Hyde & E,B,G. Jones

Valsaceae

Decaying on stem of C. flagellum

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Fasciatispora petrakii (Mhaskar & V.G. Rao) K.D. Hyde

Xylariaceae

Decaying on leaf of Borassus flabellifer

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Guignardia calami (Syd. P. Syde) Arx & E. Moll.

Mycosphae-rellaceae

Decaying on leaf of Cocos nucifera

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Hirsutella citriformis Speare

Baculoviri-dae

On Ant

T

P

Keokene (NOUL  022)

Lophiostoma graciale (Fuckel) Holm

Lophiosto-mataceae

Decaying on stem of C. flagellum

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b

Massarina corticola (Fuckel) Holm

Lophiosto-

mataceae

Decaying on petiole of Licuala grandis

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Massarina palmicola K.D.Hyde & Aptroot

Lophiosto-mataceae

Decaying on stem of C. flagellum

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Myelosperma tumidum Syd. & P. Syd.

Myelosper-maceae

Decaying on stem of C. flagellum

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b

Mytilidion cf. acicola Winter.

Mytilidaceae

Decaying on stem of C. flagellum

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b

Ophiocordycep s shecocephala (Klotzsch)G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones  & Spatafora

Ophiocordy-cipitaceae

On Wasp

T

P

Keokene (NOUL  005)

Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila (Cesati) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones &  Spatafora

Ophiocordy-cipitaceae

On Wasp

T

P

Keokene (NOUL  023)

Oxydothis bruneiensis J. Frohl. & K.D. Hyde

Hyponectri-aceae

Decaying on stem of Cocos nucifera

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Oxydothis elaeicola Petr. Apud Petrak & deighton

Hyponectri-aceae

Decaying on stem of C. flagellum

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Oxydothis rattanica J. Frohl. & K.D. Hyde

Hyponectri-aceae

Decaying on stem of C. flagellum

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b

Pestalosphaeria elaeidis (Booth & Robertson) Ao

Amphisphae-riaceae

Decaying on leaf of Cocos nucifera

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b

Phaeodothis sp.

Phaeosphae-riaceae

Decaying on leaf of Caryota mitis

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b

Phomatospora sp.

Xylidaceae

Decaying on leaf of Caryota mitis

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b

Torrubiella iriomoteana Kobayasi & Shimizu

Cordycipita-ceae

Insect (Hemiptera)

T

P

Keokene  (MUO00001.1)

Valsa chlorine Pat.

Valsaceae

Decaying on stem of Cocos nucifera

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b

BASIDIOMYCOTA

Agaricus cinereus Schaeff.

Het Khi Khouay

Agaricaceae

On soil under grass

T

S

Vidal, 1959

Agaricus equestris Lour.

Het Khi Mah

Agaricaceae

On host dug

T

S

Vidal, 1959

Agaricus sp.

Het Pouak

Agaricaceae

On soil

T

S

Vidal,1959

Astraeus hygrometricus (Pers) Morg.

Het Phoh

Astreaceae

On soil in dry dipterocarp forest

T

S

Vidal,1959

Amanita vaginata Fr. var. alba (Fr.) Gill.

Het La Ngok Khao

Amanitaceae

On soil

T

S

Thavatdy et al.,  2008

Amanita vaginata (Fr.) Quel. Var. fulva

Het La Ngok Luang

Amanitaceae

On soil

T

S

Thavatdy et al.,  2008

Auricularis auricular (Hook F.) Underw.

Het Hou Nou

Auricula-ceae

Decaying wood in forest

T

S

Vidal, 1959,  Khamta et al, 2003

Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc.

Het Hou Nou, Het Sa Noun, Het sa Tao

Auricula-ceae

Decaying wood in forest

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Auricularia ternus (Lev.) farlow

Het Hou Nou

Auricula-ceae

Decaying wood in forest

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Boletus sp. (1)

Het Tup Tau Dam

Boletaceae

On soil

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Boletus sp. (2)

Het Tup Tau Dam

Boletaceae

On soil

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Calvatia craniformis Coker et Couch

Het Chao Mark

Lycoperda-ceae

On soil

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Cantharella minor Pek

Het Khi Minnoy

Canthrarel-laceae

On soil

T

S

Phengsintham and  Hyde, 2003a

Cantharella subbrubarius Pek

Het Mun Pau

Canthrarel-laceae

On soil

T

S

Phengsintham and  Hyde, 2003a

Clavaria sp.

Clavaria-ceae

On soil

T

S

Vidal, 1959

Coprinus disseminates (Schaeff. Ex Fr.) S.F. Gray

Coprina-ceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Phengsintham and  Hyde, 2003a

Coprinus cinereus (Schaeff. Ex Fr.) S.F. Gray

Coprina-ceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Coriolus caperatus Berk.

Het hou Sua

Polypora-ceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Vidal, 1959

Coriolus biformis KI.

Het Bok

Polypora-ceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Vidal, 1959

Dictyophora indusiata (vent.) Fisch.

Het dang Hae

Phallaceae

On soil

T

S

Vidal, 1959

Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst

Het Lin Chu

Polypora-ceae

On soil

T

S

Vidal, 1959

Lactarius flavidulus Imai

Het Khah

Russuala-ceae

On soil

T

S

Khamta et al,  2003

Lactarius sp. (1)

Het Khah

Russuala-ceae

On soil

T

S

Khamta et al,  2003

Lactarius sp. (2)

Het Khah

Russuala-ceae

On soil

T

S

Khamta et al,  2003

Lepiota sp.

Het Khon Kong

Agarica-ceae

On soil

T

S

Vidal, 1959

Lentinus flavidulus Imai.

Het Kha

Polypodia-ceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Thavatdy et al,  2008

Lentinus sajar-caju (Fr.) Fr.

Het Pok

Polypodia-ceae

Decaying wood of Terminalia, Cratoxylon sp.,  etc

T

S

Khamta et al,  2003

Lentinus polychrous Lev.

Het Khon, Het Both

Polypodia-ceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Khamta et al,  2003

Lentinus squarrosulus Mont.

Het Khon Khao

Polypodia-ceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Khamta et al,  2003

Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer.

Het Hom

Polypodia-ceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Khamta et al,  2003

Microporus xanthopus (fr.) Pat.

Het Seng

Polypodia-ceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Vidal, 1959

Mycena sp.

Het Khau Tok, Het Kai Noy

Agarica-ceae

On soil

T

S

Khamta et al,  2003

Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Guil.

Het Nang Lom

Pleurota-ceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Thavatdy et al,  2008

Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff. Ex fr.

Het Naa Muang

Russulaceae

On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests

T

S

Phengsintham et  al., 1996; Khamta et al., 2003

Russula nigricans Fr.

Het Thain Ngai

Russula-ceae

On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests

T

S

Phengsintham et  al., 1996; Khamta et al., 2003

Russula sanguine Fr.

Het Nam mak

Russula-ceae

On soil in forest

T

S

Thavady et al.,  2008

Rusulla sp. (1)

Het Than Noi

Russula-ceae

On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Rusulla sp. (2)

Het Than Noi

Russula-ceae

On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Rusulla sp. (3)

Het Than Noi

Russula-ceae

On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Russula violeipis Quel.

Het Naa Muang

Russula-ceae

On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Schizophyllum commune Fr.

Het Bee, het Tupkae

Schizophyl-laceae

Decaying wood

T

S

Khamta et al.,  2003

Termitomyces sp.

Het Puak

Agarica-ceae

On soil

T

S

Vidal, 1959;  Phengsintham et al, 2003

Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk & Br.) Heim

Het tupkai

noy

Agaricaceae

On soil

T

S

Vidal, 1959;  Phengsintham et al, 2003

Volvariella volvacea (Bull. & fr.)

Het Fuang

Pluteaceae

On grasses

T

S

Vidal, 1959;  Thavady et al., 2008

DEUTEROMYCOTA

Acremonium sp.

Dematiaceae

Decaying on petiole of Borasus flabellifer

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde, P2003a

Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc.

Dematiaceae

Parasitic on living leaf on Brassica integrifolia

T

P

Vongphachanh et  al. 2007

Alternaria cucurbitae Letendre & Braun.

Dematiaceae

Parasitic on living leaf on Cucurbita hispida

T

P

Vongphachanh et  al. 2007

Alternaria solani (Ellis & G. martin) L.R. Jones & Grauz.

Dematiacea

Parasitic on living leaf on Lycopersicon esculentum

T

P

Vongphachanh et  al. 2007

Cercospora achyranthisSyd. & P.  Sydow.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Achyranthes aspera

T

P

Phengsintham  (P43)

Cercospora alocasiae Goh & W.H. Hsieh

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Alocasiamacrorrhiza

T

P

Phengsintham  (P464)

Cercospora apii Fresen.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Byttneria andamanensis

T

P

Phengsintham et al.,  2010a

Cercospora artemisiae Y. L. Guo & Y.  Jiang

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Artemisia caudata

T

P

Phengsintham  (P597)

Cercospora asparangi Sacc.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Asparagus  officinalis

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Cercospora  begoniae Nori

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Begonia inflate

T

P

Phengsintham  (P517)

Cercospora bidentis Tharp.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Bidens  pilosa

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Cercospora brassicicola P. Hennings

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Brassica  integrifolia

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Cercospora canescens Ellis & G. Martin

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Lablab purpureus subsp.  Bengalensis

T

P

Phengsintham  (P172)

Cercospora cannabis Hara & Fukui

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Cannabis sativa

T

P

Phengsintham  (P646)

Cercospora coffeicola Berk. & Cooke

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Coffea Arabica

T

P

Phengsintham  (P301)

Cercospora citrulina Cooke

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Luffa cylindrical

T

P

Phengsintham  (P199)

Cercospora cocciniae Munjal, Hall & Chona

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Coccinia  indica

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Cercospora copsigena Bhartiya, R, Dubey & S.K. Singh

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Capsicum annuum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P380)

Cercospora crophulariae (Moesz) Chupp

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Scrophilaria  sp

T

P

Phengsintham  (P570)

Cercospora crotalaria Sacc.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Crotalaria uncinella Lamk.   Subsp. elliptica

T

P

Phengsintham (P574)

Cercospora diplaziicola A.K. Das

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Diplazium  esculentum

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Cercospora durantae Chupp. & Muller

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Duranta  repens

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Cercospora erechtitis Atkison

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Erechtites  valerianifolius

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Cercospora erythrinicola Tharrp

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Erythrina stricta

T

P

Phengsintham  (P333)

Cercospora gossypinaCooke.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Gossypium  herbaceum

T

P

Crous &  Braun, 2003

Cercospora hyptidicola R.K.Srivast., N. Srivast. & A.K.Srivast.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Hyptis  suaveolens

T

P

Phengsintham  (P22)

Cercospora ipomoeae G. Winter

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Ipomoea  involucrata

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Cercospora meliicola Speg.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Chukrasia tabularis

T

P

Phengsintham  (P581)

Cercospora nasturtii Passerini.  

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Nasturtium officinale

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Cercospora nicotianicola J. M. Yen

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Nicotiana tabacum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P583)

Cercospora nilhirensis Govinda & Thirun

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Conyza  banariensis

T

P

Phengsintham  (P240)

Cercospora oroxyli Fresen.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Oroxylum  indicum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P23)

Cercospora paederiicola Y.L. Guo

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Paederia  scandens

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Cercospora papayae Hansf.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Carica  papaya

T

P

Phengsintham  (P122)

Cercospora petersii (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) G.F. Atk.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Smilax  chinensis

T

P

Phengsintham  (P460)

Cercospora physalidis Ellis

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Physalis  angulata

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Cercospra ricinella Sacc. & Berl.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Ricinus communis

T

P

Phengsintham  (P594)

Cercospora sambuci Y.L. Guo & Jiang

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Sambucus

T

P

Phengsintham  (P233)

Cercospora senecionicolaJ.J. Davis

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Senecio walkeri

T

P

Phengsintham  (P567)

Cercospora somchi Chupp.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Taraxacum officinale

T

P

Phengsintham  (P600)

Cercospora stahlianthi Z.D. Jiang & P.K. Chi

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Stahlianthus thorelii

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Cercospora taccae (Syd. & P. Syd.) Chupp.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Tacca intergrifoia

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Cercospora trewiae A.K. Kar & M. Madal

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Trewia nudiflora

T

P

Phengsintham  (P580)

Cercospora tridacis-procumbens Govindu & Thirum.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Tridax  procumbens

T

P

Phengsintham  (P282)

Cercospora   volkameriae Speg.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Clerodendron  schmidtii

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Cercospora zinniae A. Pande

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Zinnia elegans

T

P

Phengsintham  (P82)

Cladoporium maculans Schwein.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Jasmiumundulatum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P39)

Cladosporium alternioloratum R.F. Castañeda & W.B. Kendr.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Cyperus alternifolius

T

P

Phengsintham  (P413)

Cladosporium citri G. Briosi, & R. Farneti

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Citrus  grandis

T

P

Phengsintham  (P12)

Cladosporium colocasiae Sawada

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Colocasia  antiquorum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P185)

Cladosporium fulvum Cooke

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Lycopersicon  esculentum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P224)

Cladosporium musae Mason.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Musa  sapientum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P150)

Cladosporium oxycarpum Berk. & Curt.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Anadendrum  latifolium

T

P

Phengsintham  (P04)

Cladosporium zeae Peck

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Zea mays

T

P

Phengsintham  (P32)

Corynespora sp.

Dematiaceae

Decaying on petiole of Calamus flagellum

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde, P2003a

Gyrotrix sp.

Dematiaceae

Decaying on petiole of Cocos nucifera

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde, P2003a

Passalora aenea (Cif.) U. Braun & Crous

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Cassia siamea

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Passalora benninghii(Allesch.) R. F. Castañeda & U.  Braun

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Manihot  utilissima

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Passalora bougainvilliae (Munt.-Cvetk.) R.F. Castañeda & U. Braun

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Bougainvillea  spectabilis

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Passalora capsicicola (Vassiljevsky) U. Braun and F. Freire.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Capsicum annuum

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Passalora dipterocarpii P. Phengsintham, K.D. Hyde. & U. Braun sp.nov.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Dipterocarpus  alatus

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Passalora erytrinae (Ellis & Everh.) U. Braun & Crous.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Erythrina stricta

T

P

Phengsintham  (P27)

Passalora haldinae C. Nakash. & Meeboon

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Haldina  cordifolia

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Passalora helicteris-viscidae P. Phengsintham, E. Chukeatirote, K. Abdelsalam, K.D.  Hyde. & U. Braun sp.nov

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Helicteres viscida

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2009

Passalora perfoliati (Ellis &Everh) U. Braun & Crous.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Chromolaena sp.

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Passalora tithoniae (R. E. D. Naker & W. T. Dale) U. Braun &  Crous.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Tithonia diversifolia

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Penicillium sp.

Dematiaceae

Decaying on petiole of Livistona chinensis

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde, P2003a

Periconiela lygodii Arch. Singh, Bhalla & S.K. Singh ex U. Braun

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Lygodium flexuosum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P579)

Pestalotiopsis smilasis (Schusinithze) Sutton

Coelomyces

Decaying on petiole of Cocos nucifera

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde, P2003a

Pseudocercospora alacicola (Muthappa) Kamal, M.K. Khan & R.K. Verma

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Olax  scandens

T

P

Phengsintham  (P192)

Pseudocercospora alangii Y.L. Guo & X.L. Liu

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Alangium kurzii

T

P

Phengsintham  (P596)

Pseudocercospora baliospermi (S. Chowdry) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Baliospermum montanum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P549)

Pseudocercospora buddleiae (W. Yammam) Goh & W.H. Hsieh

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Buddleia  asiatica

T

P

Phengsintham  (P560)

Pseudocercospora cassiae-occidentalis (J.M. Yen) J.M.Yen

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Cassia  occidentalis

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora catappae (Henn.) X.J. Liiu &Y. L. Guo

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Terminalia  tomentosa

T

P

Phengsintham  (P543)

Pseudocercospora centromaticola (J.M. Yen & G. Lim) J.M. Yen

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Centrosema

T

P

Phengsintham  (P44)

Pseudocercospora combretigena U. Braun

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Calycopteris  floribunda

T

P

Phengsintham  (P545)

Pseudocercospora cotizensis (A.S. Mull. & Chupp) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Crotalaria  uncinella subsp. elliptica

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Pseudocercospora cruenta (Sacc.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Mucuna pruriens

T

P

Phengsintham  (P565)

Pseudocercospora cyclea (Chidd.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Cyclea  peltata

T

P

Phengsintham  (P90)

Pseudocercosporaduabangae M.D. Mehrotra & R.K. Verma

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Duabanga grandiflora

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora ecdysantherae (J.M. Yen) J. M. Yen

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Ecdysanthera  rosea

T

P

Phengsintham  (P133)

Pseudocercospora eupatorii–formasani U. Braun & Bagyan.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Chromolaena  odorata

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Pseudocercospora formasana (W. Yamam) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Lantanacamara

T

P

Phengsintham  (P576)

Pseudocercospora fuligena (Roldan) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Lycopersicon  esculentum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P49)

Pseudocercospora giranensis Sawada ex Goh & W.H. Hsieh

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Glochidion  eriocarpum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P181)

Pseudocercospora gmelinae (J.M. Yen & Gilles) J.M. Yen

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Gmelina arborea

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora holarrhenae (Thirun. & Chupp.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Holarrhena  curtisii

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora ixora (Solh.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Ixora stricta

T

P

Phengsintham  (P50)

Pseudocercospora jussiaeae (G. F. Atk.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Ludwigia  prostrata

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Pseudocercospora lythracearum (Heald & F.A. Wolf) X.J.  Liu & Y.L. Guo

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Lagerstroemia macrocarpa

T

P

Phengsintham  (P611)

Pseudocercospora macarangae (Sud. & P. Syd.) Deaighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Macarangae  denticulata

T

P

Phengsintham  (P564)

Pseudocercospora maesae (Hansf.) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Maesa  ramentacea

T

P

Phengsintham  (P575)

Pseudocercospora malloticola Goh & Hsieh.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Mallotus thorelii

T

P

Phengsintham (P588)

Pseudocercospora mannanorensis var.  paucifasciculata P. Phengsintham, E. Chukeatirote,K. Abdelsalam, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Microcos paniculata

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2009

Pseudocercospora melochiae (Henn.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Melochia  corchorifolia

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Pseudocercospora musae (Zimm.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Musa sapientum

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora namae (Dearn. & House) U. Braun & Crous

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Hydrolea  zeylanica

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora ocimicola (Petr. & Cif.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Ocimum  tenuiflorum

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora paraguayensis (Tak. Kobay.) Crous

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Eucalyptus sp.

T

P

Phengsintham  (P405)

Pseudocercospora piperis (Pat.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Piper lolot

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora polygonicola (A.K. Kar & M. Mandal) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Polygonumpulchrum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P599)

Pseudocercospora puderi Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Rosa chinensis

T

P

Phengsintham  (P164)

Pseudocercospora puerariicola (W. Yamam.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Pueraria phaseoloides

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Pseudocercospora punicae (Henn.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Punica granatum

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2011

Pseudocercospora sarcocephalii (Venn-Bourg) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Sarcocephaluscordatus

T

P

Phengsintham  (P358)

Pseudocercospora scopariicola (J.M. Yen) Dieghton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Scoparia dulcis

T

P

Phengsintham  (P644)

Pseudocercospora sp.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Micromelum hirsutum

T

P

Phengsintham  (P582)

Pseudocercospora sphaerellae-eugeniae (Sacc.) Crous, Alfenas &  R. W. Barreto

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Sysygium  cuminii

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora stahlii (F. Stevens) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Passiflora  foetida

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Pseudocercospora tabernaemontanae (Syd. & P. Syd.)  Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Tabernaemontana  coronaria

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora testonicola Ten, Kas & Das.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Tectona  grandis

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora tetramilisA.N. Shukla & Sarmah

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Tetrameles nudiflora

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora tiliacora (A.K. Kar & M.  Mandal) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Tiliacora  triandra

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Pseudocercospora trematicola (J.M. Yen) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Trema orientale

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Pseudocercospora trichophila (F. Stevens) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Solanum  undatum

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Pseudocercospora wendlandiae (U. Braun & Crous) B. Sutton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Wendlandiathorelii

T

P

Phengsintham  (P512)

Pseudocercospora writiae (Thirum. & Chupp) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Wrightia  pubescens

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010a

Pseudocercosporella bakeri (Syd. & P. Syd.) Deighton

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Ipomoea aquatica

T

P

Frank et al,  2010

Scolecostigmina mangiferae (Koord) U. Braun & Mouch.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Mangifera  indica

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Spegazzinia tessarthra (Berk & Curt.) Sacc.

Dematiaceae

Decaying on petiole of Lcuala grandis

T

S

Phengsintham  & Hyde, 2003a

Spirops clavatus (Ellis & Martin) M. B. Ellis.

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Mangifera indica

T

P

Phengsintham  (P390)

Zasmidium aporosae P. Phengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Aporosa  villosa

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2009

Zasmidium jasmicola P. Phengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Jasminum  undulatum

T

P

Phengsintham et al.,  2009

Zasmidium maynae-laxifloraeP. Phengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U.  Braun sp.nov

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Meyna  pubescens

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2009

Zasmidium micromeli P. Phengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Micromelum hirsutum

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2010b

Zasmidium pavetae P. Phengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Pavetta  indica

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2009

Zasmidium sp. (2)

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Dalbergia  cultrata

T

P

Phengsintham  (P550)

Zasmidium sp.(1)

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Spondias  pinnata

T

P

Phengsintham  (P605)

Zasmidium suregadae P. Phengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov

Dematiaceae

On living leaf of Suregada  multiflora

T

P

Phengsintham et  al., 2009

Note: C = Calamus,H = habitat, LM = life modes, S = saprobic. T= terrestrial. P = parasitic

Discussionsand Conclusions

(1)   Lao PDR is considered to beglobally important for biodiversity conservation due to its relatively highforest cover and high diversity of flora and fauna.

(2)   A total of 12,116 species:8,000-11,000 species of flowering plants, fauna includes 166 reported speciesof reptiles and amphibians, at least 700 bird species, 90 known species of batsand at least 100 species of large mammals, and fungi 60 species.

(3)   Therehave very few studies on Lao fungi. 1959-1974, it was the war condition period and almost temporary stopstudy in Mycology, and for each institute teaching curriculum only mentionedabout the general information of fungi, especially focused on marofungi. Atotal of 33 fungi species had recorded, and almost those fungi are belong toBasidiomycota.

(4)   From 1975 up to now the teaching curriculum has beendeveloped and started study on fungi by cooperation with internationalorganizations. A total of 168 fungi species have recorded from Laos: Ascomycota24 species, Basidiomycota 11 species, Deuteromycota about 133 species. By integrating themorphological and molecular characters, nine new taxa were established, namely Passalora dipterocarpi, P. helicteris-viscidae, Pseudocercospora mannanorensis Bagyan., U. Braun & Jagad.var. paucifasciculata,Zasmidiumaporosae,Z.jasminicola, Z. meynae-laxiflorae, Z. micromeli,Z.suregadae, Z. pavettae, while other cercosporoids speciesrepresent new record for Laos.These data areexpected to shed light on the diversity of the fungal group in this region.

(5)   Aswe known the forest cover in Laos about 41 % of a total country, and therestill have primary forest and limestone areas, so that unexpoitation forests,may be have more fungal diversity.

TheFuture

      Basedon the strategic plan for the development of NUOL, and to achieve the goals,vision and functions of NUOL for the educational quality development, sixdevelopment strategic plans have been determined as follows:

(1)   Improveteachers, staff, and students.

(2)   Improveadministration and management systems.

(3)   Improvethe quality of teaching and learning.

(4)   Improvethe quality of research and academic services.

(5)   Improvethe infrastructure and facilities.

(6)   Improvethe national and international collaborations.

      Basedon the strategic plan above, the fungi research activities are need to improvein teaching curriculum and research on fungi.

Acknowledgements

Theauthors would like to thank the Mushroom Research Foundation (MRF) forfinancial support. Special thanks also go to the MRF organizers and members ofProf. K.D. Hyde’s laboratory, Mae Fah Luang University, and members of Biologydepartment, Faculty of sciences, National University of Laos for theirassistance.

References

CousPW and Braun U 2003 Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs: 1. Names published in Cercospora and Passalora. CBS Biodiversity Series 1: 1569.

FrankJ, Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Oertel B, Hyde KD, Phengsintham P and Schroers HJ2010 –Microcyclosporaand Microcyclosporella:novel genera accommodating epiphytic fungi causing sooty blotch on apple.Persoonia 24, 2010: 93–105.

KhamtaD, Payaming B, Pravongviengkham S and Phengsintham P 2003 – Studies on Wild ediblemushroom in Xaythani District, Vientiane Municipality, BSc report. National Universityof Laos.

NUOL2011 – Strategic plan National University of Laos, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Phengsintham P and Hyde KD 2003a Check list of Lao fungi. Building Capacity inBiodiversity Information Sharing 2003. Ksukuba Japan, 184190.

Phengsintham P and Hyde KD 2003b Fungi ofLaos I: Ascomycetes from Palms. Building Capacity in Biodiversity InformationSharing 2003. Ksukuba Japan, 174183.

Phengsintham P, Hyde KD and Braun U 2009Cercospora and allied genera from Laos 1. Notes on Zasmidium (Stenellas.lat.). Cryptologie, Mycologie, 30(2): 120.

Phengsintham P, Chukeatirote E, Abdelsalam KA, Hyde KD &Braun U 2010Cercospora andallied genera from Laos 2. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 31(1):121.

PhengsinthamP, Chukeatirote E, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD, Braun U 2011 – Tropicalphythopathogens 1: Pseudocercosporapunicae. Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(1), 1–6.

Saignaleut S 2011 – Report on the National University ofLaos’ 15 years of Foundation (1996-2011). Vientiane Lao PDR.

STEA2003 BiodiversityCountry Report. Lao PDR.

ThavatdyT, Sykham B and Saliyavong V 2008 Reporton Diversity of Mushrooms in Dongmakkhai     Village,Xaythany District, Vientiane Municipality, and Mai village, Xay District,Oudomxay Province. BSc. Report, Faculty of Science, National University ofLaos.

Vidal J 1959 Noms vernacularis de Plantes en usage au Laos. Ecole Francaise D’Extreme-Orient. Paris.

Vongphachanh P, Wolabout M, Phaviste M, Phengsintham P & Khounsouvanh F 2007 Taxonomic Study on Family Demataceae in Xaithany District. BSc. Report, National University of Laos.


Studies of Fungal Biodiversity inNorthern Thailand

In2009, the University of Arkansas in the United States was awarded a grant fromthe National Science Foundation (NSF) for a project entitled “Studies of FungalBiodiversity in Northern Thailand.” The funding provided by NSF supports aninternational education program that provides the opportunity, during each ofthree summers, for four undergraduate and/or graduate students from the UnitesStates to spend a month carrying out biodiversity studies of fungi andfungus-like organisms associated with tropical forests in northern Thailand.Tropical forests are thought to be the terrestrial ecosystems characterized bythe highest fungal biodiversity, but a major portion of this biodiversity hasyet to be documented. While in Thailand, the four student participants from theUnited States interact with students from SE Asia who are enrolled at eitherMae Fah Luang University or Chiang Mai University. The majority of the studentsare from Thailand, but participants also have included individuals from China,Laos, Sri Lanka and the Philippines.

Dr. SteveStephenson of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University ofArkansas is the program coordinator, with Dr. Dennis Desjardin of San FranciscoState University and Dr. Steve Miller of the University of Wyoming serving asco-directors. Mycologists in Thailand involved in the program are Dr. KevinHyde at Mae Fah Luang University and Dr. Saisamorn Lumyong at Chiang MaiUniversity. Other individuals who have been involved in the program are Dr.Adam Rollins of Lincoln Memorial University (United States), Dr. Carlos Rojasof the University of Costa Rica, and Dr. Thida Win Ko Ko of Mae Fah University.

The first of the threesummer programs was carried out during the period of mid-June to mid-July of2010, with the second summer program taking place during the period of mid-Juneof 2011. The third summer program is scheduled for a comparable period of timein 2012. Participants from the United Statesflew to Bangkok and then on to Chiang Mai, finally arriving at the Mushroom Research Centre (Fig. 1),which is serving as the base of operations for the summer programs.  The Mushroom Research Centre, located 64 kmnorth of Chiang Mai, is situated on in a forested area that offers excellentopportunities for collecting fungi. The Centre itself consists of a number ofchalets (which provide “homes” for all participants in the month-long summerprogram), a kitchen and meeting area and laboratory facilities. Meals(traditional Thai food) are prepared on site.

Each summerprogram consists of an introductory session on fungi, workshops on particulargroups of fungi and fungus-like organisms and trips to collecting sites in theChiang Mai region of northern India. Workshops held as part of the 2011 summerprogram considered the family Russulaceae, pyrenomycetous fungi andmyxomycetes. Collecting has been carried out in a variety of different foresttypes, including pine-dominated forests, dipterocarp forests and mixed forests(Fig. 2). Specimens collected in the field are brought back to the laboratoryfor detailed study. After they have been photographed, described and worked up,specimens are deposited in the herbarium of Mae Fah Luang University.

In addition tospending time together on collecting trips and working in the laboratory,student participants share research interests and generally get to know oneanother. Participants form the United States get to know Thai culture inaddition to learning about the customs and way of life in the other countries(e.g., China and Laos) represented by participants from SE Asia. This aspect ofthe program has been an extraordinary experience for all of the studentsinvolved and undoubtedly will lead to future research collaborations as thesestudents embark upon their careers in mycology.

Each of the two summer programs completed thus farhas yielded several hundred collections of fungi (including slime molds). In2011, some emphasis was on the “little fungi” (mostly ascomycetes) that areoften overlooked by mycologists whose interests are directed towardsmacrofungi. Although most of the specimens have yet to be identified, Dr.Larissa Vasilyeva (Vladivostok, Russia), who spent about 10 days at theMushroom Research Centre during the latter portion of June, discovered at least15 species of pyrenomycetes that are new to science. It seems almost certainthat additional new species in a number of groups of fungi are forthcoming.  

Images of the Mushroom Research Centre, studentparticipants, fungi and northern Thailand in general are available on <Thailand.uark.edu>.


Mycology in Israel

Mycology in Israel encompasses all aspects ofinterests in the fungal kingdom. This includes research, cultivation, thebiotechnological industry and clinical mycology. A growing number of Israelisare also interested in fungal forays and the culinary delights of fungi.

The fungal research community of about 120 activemembers has representatives in all 7 Israeli universities as well as inadditional institutes. Though  not verylarge (given the size of the country, with a population of about 7 million), itis an active research community and prides itself with high quality researchoutput, mainly in fungal cell biology, genetics, fungal host interactions(human, animal and plant), biological control, fungal ecology (terrestrial andmarine) and systematics.  Some of themain fungal genera studied in Israel include Cochliobolus, Colletotrichum,Botrytis, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, Pleurotus,Trichoderma and Neurospora.

Most fungal researchers are associated with one orboth of two major societies in Israel – the Israeli Phytopathological Societyand the Israel Society for Microbiology. Both of these active societies holdannual general meetings and workshops as well as field trips and specialinterest group meetings. In addition, non-formal meetings of a “molecularmycology club” convene twice yearly (each time hosted by a different universitycampus), where students present their progress in an “expanded group meeting” format.

Fungal biology is also studied and applied inindustry, ranging from production of biocontrol agents (e.g., Trichoderma,Ampelomyces) to the use of fungi for production of metabolites of interest.Services for diagnosis are present in the major hospitals, the ministry ofagriculture as well as by some private companies. In addition, there is aconstant expansion of the edible mushroom industry (mainly Agaricus and Pleurotusbut efforts are invested in the expansion of the range of species grown).

It is currently the beginning of the foray season inIsrael (which can last as long as until April), in which mushrooms such as Agaricus,Pleurotus, Boletus, Lepiota, Tricholoma, and Volvarillacan be found. In addition, one of the unique edible mushrooms collected duringthe spring time, mainly in dessert areas of the country, is thedesert "false Truffles" Terfezia and Tirmania.


Which has more diverse assemblagesof myxomycetes: tropical forests or temperate forests?

Particular groups of plants andanimals become increasingly more diverse as one nears the equator. Is thispattern also true for slime molds (or myxomycetes)? This is what Dr. ThomasEdison dela Cruz would like to answer. Dr dela Cruz, the Philippinerepresentative to the Asia Mycology Committee and a faculty member in theDepartment of Biological Sciences, University of Santo Tomas in Manila,Philippines, is currently working on a project with Dr. Steve Stephenson at theUniversity of Arkansas in the United States. Dr. dela Cruz was awarded apost-doctoral fellowship by the prestigious Fulbright Commission. He andStephenson, who is a former Fulbright scholar (at Himachal Pradesh Universityin India) himself, are comparing the myxomycete assemblages associated withthree well-defined microhabitats in forests of the tropics and temperate zones.Samples of aerial litter, ground litter and dead twigs were collected fromthree lowland dipterocarp forests in the Philippines. These were Mt.Palay-Palay National Park in Ternate, Cavite; the Subic Forest Reserve inSubic, Zambales; and Bataan National Park in Morong, Bataan. Comparable samplesalso were collected from three types of temperate forests in Arkansas. Theforests sampled were an oak-hickory forest in Devil’s Den State Park, a mixedoak forest in Pea Ridge National Historical Park, and a beech-dominated forestin the Lost Valley area of the Buffalo National River. With the assistance ofDr. Hanh Tran, a faculty member at Ho Chi Minh International University inVietnam and also a Fulbright scholar at the University of Arkansas, sets ofmoist chamber cultures were prepared from the samples and are being monitoredto assess myxomycete species diversity. Preliminary data appear to show higherdiversity for tropical forests than temperate forests. At least 43 species ofmyxomycetes belonging to 17 genera have been recorded thus far for substratescollected in the Philippines, whereas only 29 species representing 18 generahave appeared in moist chamber cultures prepared from substrates collected inArkansas. Several of the species from the Philippines are new records for thecountry. Twigs clearly have been the most productive substrate, regardless ofwhere they were collected. However, as the project continues, it remains to beseen whether the patterns noted thus far will continue to hold true. Thisproject is the largest study yet carried out to compare the assemblages ofmyxomycetes associated with the same types of substrates in tropical andtemperate forests.